Week 5 presentations were given on Generative, Situated, and Problem-based Learning.
Wittrock is a founder of this learning approach. The style divides paradigm shift and is considered a “cousin” of constructivism. Generative learning is also related to behaviorism, connectivism, scheme, information processing, and constructivism. “Learners should be accountable and responsible in learning.” What I know and how it relates to what I will learn. The processes include generalization, motivation, attention, conceptions, and relationships. Learners do assume a more active role. Active and generating relationships, motivated or responsible, attentive to structure, and awareness of learning strategies are principles of generative learning. Theoretically, this approach resembles constructivism and is similar to cooperative learning. The four elements of generative learning include: recall, integration, organization, and elaboration. Practically, the instruction is relevant and teaches students self-control strategies. Understanding learners to achieve alignment is key. The teacher assumes a “teach not tell” role to get the learner interested.
Metacognitive: student needs to understand how they learn. This should help them develop their self-regulated skill. Resource management.
Lave and Wegner are key founders and researchers. The roots of situated learning can be traced to Vygotsky and Gibson.
Thought is adapted to the environment. Situated learning is a general theory of knowledge acquisition. Emphasized in situated learning: what is learned, specific to the situation in which it is learned. The principles of situated learning include authentic context and social interaction and collaboration. Learning as it normally occurs is a function of situated learning.
Tasks for design:
Select the situation
Determine and support the role of the teacher
Assessing the situated learning
“PBL engages the learner in a problem-solving activity. In this process, instruction begins with a problem to be solved rather than content to be mastered” (Hsiao, 1996).
Problem-based learning is acknowledged as starting in the medical school at McMaster University in Canada in the 1960s, and pioneered by Howard Barrows and his colleagues.
Barrows regarding the studies of the clinical reasoning of students…suggested that the conventional methods of teaching probably inhibit, if not destroy, any clinical reasoning ability….[and] that students had forgotten their freshman [course content] by the time they reached their clinical course as juniors…[This] led to my design of a method stressing development of the clinical reasoning or problem-solving process. (Barrows, 1996)
The tutorial process resulting from the insights of Barrows provides a specific instructional method with well-articulated procedures, as well as a philosophy for structuring an entire curriculum to promote student-centered, multidisciplinary education and lifelong learning in professional practice (Wilkerson & Gijselaers, 1996)
The essential elements of problem-based learning are:
- students are presented a written problem or scenario in small groups
- there is a change in faculty role from imparter of information to facilitator of learning
- there is an emphasis on student responsibility and self-directed learning
- a problem is the stimulus for learning with students engaging in a problem solving process as they learn and discuss content related to the problem (Solomon, 1994).
Who is using PBL: Problem-based learning has been used extensively in health professional programs.
Problem-based learning is being integrated in to K-12 curriculum as well as in online learning.
The Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy since 1985
The Problem-Based Learning Initiative has developed curricular materials
The University of Delaware: For over ten years