The historical development of educational technology originates much earlier than I thought.  The period of consolidation in the early 70s is the point “educational technology” became a recognized term and occupation.  Some of the major contributors of educational technology include the development of distance education, the growth of supported self-study, and the development of technological support for people with disabilities.  The term “flexible learning” is a term that combines the advantages of resource-based learning with action planning (Eraut, n.d).  Around 1993 it was thought the process of change would remain gradual.  It would be interesting to see an update on the last 20 years in a continuation of this article.

Three positions on learning are behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist.  The Etmer & Newby (1993) article discusses the need to bridge basic learning research and educational practice.  The approach a designer chooses can vary and the importance of understanding the different approach or position is necessary. The article mentions that the choice or best approach depends upon the context-“systematic eclecticism.”  Being well versed is key, and understanding each theory and the considerations of each.

The Learning and Teaching as Communicative Actions Theory (LTCA) is a framework building on the works of Habermas.  This theory “seeks to improve human communication towards instructional and learning goals” (Wakefield, Warren, Alsobrook, 2011, p. 568).  The four communicative actions (normative, strategic, constative, dramaturgical) are detailed and each is related to an action of this study.  Learning can expand through access to resources such as Twitter depending on how the tool is integrated. Overall, this article provided important information about the importance of mutual understanding through communication, and confirmed my understanding of Habermas.

Eraut, M. (n.d.).  Educational technology: Conceptual frameworks and historical development. 1882-1899.

Ertmer, P. & Newby, T. (1993) Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50-72

Wakefield, J.S., Warren, S.J., & Alsobrook, M. (2011). Learning and teaching as communicative actions: A mixed-methods Twitter study. Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An International Journal 3(4), 563-584.