Narrative discourse has always been important for philosophy.  Story telling is something every philosopher uses, in some form,  for rationalization.  The Bernstein reading aims to discover the response to a confusing or disturbing situation.  Reason is mentioned as associated to freedom and equality, happiness and peace.  I found a definition that I liked from Merriam Webster: the power of comprehending, inferring, or thinking in orderly rational ways.  Comprehending  something does provide a sense of freedom and happiness, especially if the topic is difficult and confusing in the beginning.  The section on Enlightenment is my favorite part of the Bernstein reading.  The story of Reason (Condorcet), is of a hero on a journey, the history of mankind.  Reason gains strength through trials and progress, seeking a form of perfection, or equality. 

Communication and Habermas are presented in Bernstein.  The discussion of communication and Derrida’s history of the West was very interesting and familiar; a warning of how much can go tragically wrong in the folds of communication and the belief that face-to-face spoken words guarantee communication.   The term communicative competence is presented in the Habermas reading.  The elementary unit of language is the sentence.  Adult speakers should be competent and possess the knowledge to produce this elementary unit. Later in this chapter, Habermas provides a number of points that show if a speech act is successful and accepted.  The speech act discussion before these points was complicated and confusing. The final points and table clarified: domain, mode, validity, and general function of speech.

Clark vs. Kozma

Clark (1983) was comparing studies from the 60s and 70s, and Kozma (1991) was provided with a decade more of research.  Kozma was responding to Clark’s challenge that media does not influence learning and is simply a vehicle that only delivers the instruction (Clark, 1983).  The topic is still actively researched. “Generally, each new medium seems to attract its own set of advocates who make claims for improved learning and stimulate research questions which are similar to those asked about the previous popular medium”(Clark, 1983, p. 447). Clark predicted the continue study of the role of media in learning and teaching, but suggested future researchers refrain from further study of the affects of media on learning.  I think Clark was simply placing emphasis on teaching and the importance of the teacher in media integration.